An invitro study of the prebiotic properties of Xylooligosaccharide (XOS) and organoleptic evaluation of XOS added Prawn patia and Black rice kheer.
Background: There is emerging evidence that functional foods ingredients can have an impact on a number of gut related diseases and dysfunctions . A prebiotic is a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers health benefits . Besides providing the health benefits, prebiotics are known to extend technological advantages in favour of improved organoleptic qualities of the food products. Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) is a stable prebiotic which can withstand heat up to 100℃ under acidic conditions (pH=2.5-8) and has a potential to be incorporated into food products . However, its prebiotic properties needs to be established in terms of bile resistance, acid tolerance, fermentability to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and growth of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Escherichia coli. XOS also needs to be exploited for its potential to be incorporated into various food products and study their organoleptic properties similar to fructooligosaccharides (FOS) which have proven technological benefits in terms of its miscibility and organoleptic qualities.
Context and purpose of this study: Several prebiotics such as FOS, GOS, inulin have been recently recognized for their health promoting abilities. XOS is yet another emerging prebiotic that needs to be explored for its prebiotic potential especially in terms of its acid tolerance, bile resistance and ability to get fermented by the probiotic bacteria and produce health promoting short chain fatty acids as well as its potential to be added to food products. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the prebiotic properties of XOS invitro and to study the organoleptic properties of XOS upon its addition on a few Indian traditional foods (Prawn patia and Black rice kheer).
Results: No degradation of XOS was observed on its exposure to bile at 0h, 1.5h and 3h with bile concentration 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%. XOS recovery was observed to be 100% on its exposure to pH 1.5, 2 and 3 at 0h. At 1.5h it was found to be 98.4%, 98.9% and 97.9% at 1.5pH, 2pH and 3pH respectively and 96.2%, 97.3% and 96.3% upon its exposure to 1.5pH, 2pH and 3pH respectively at 3h. Growth of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium adolescentis was higher (OD 0.71) and (OD 0.75) up to 2% when compared to glucose (p≤0.01), whereas, growth of Escherichia coli (OD 0.4) was restricted upon addition of XOS when compared to glucose (p≤0.01). Acetate was produced the most, followed by Propionate and Butyrate. Organoleptic evaluation revealed no significant difference in XOS added Prawn patia and Black rice kheer at all levels of addition (5%, 8% and 10%). Hence, adsition of XOS to these two products were well accepted by the panellists up to 10% level of addition.
Conclusions: This study has successfully established the prebiotic potential of XOS in terms of acid tolerance, bile resistance, growth of probiotic bacteria and production of SCFA. XOS was well accepted in both the food products at all the three levels of incorporation, i.e. 5%, 8% and 10%. Limited researches have been conducted on prebiotic XOS. Therefore, for discussion references were taken with regards to other prebiotics such as FOS, inulin etc. Further studies can be undertaken to demonstrate the clinical efficacy of XOS intake with respect to various non communicable diseases.
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