Vitamin D effects on immune response against Covid-19 and influenza infection: A review

Payam Hashemi, Hossein Mirmiranpour, Shaghayegh Pezeshki


Vitamin D could decrease the risk of viral infections with regulation of the immune system response against viral activity. Proper level of 25(OH)D decreases the risk of chronic respiratory tract infections (RTIs), malignancies, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus. Vitamin D can decrease risk of RTIs through some mechanisms. Adequate levels of vitamin D can decrease the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines which predominantly release from innate immune cells. It also can preserve tight junctions in the base membrane. Vitamin D may eliminate enveloped viruses by activating cathelicidin (a protein in the membrane of neutrophils, macrophages, and epithelial cells). These processes can reduce the risk of a cytokine storm and severe pneumonia. Clinical trials have shown the beneficial influences of vitamin D in decreasing the risk of viral pneumonia, dengue fever, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and herpes infections.

Keywords: Vitamin D, influenza, covid-19, innate immune cells, infections

Full Text: [Abstract] [Full Article]

DOI: 10.31989/bchd.v3i6.724


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