COVID-19: human immune response and the influence of food ingredients and active compounds

Raphael Ayivi, Salam A. Ibrahim, Heather Colleran, Roberta Silva, Leonard Williams, Charis Galanakis, Hafize Fidan, Julijana Tomovska, Shahida Anusha Siddiqui

Abstract


The human immune system is the first line of defense in the prevention of viruses and diseases, and several immune response mechanisms are engaged at the onset of a pathogenic attack. In this review, we elucidate the human immune system as a critical element in protecting humans from COVID-19 by describing the immune process, explaining how the immune system functions, and highlighting the immune system’s global importance in fighting infections. Potential challenges that limit the  proper functioning of the immune system are also discussed. In addition, we address the impact of nutrition on boosting the body’s defenses against COVID-19. For example, some foods and active compounds from food ingredients have been suggested as a way to strengthen the immune system. Physical exercise has also been encouraged as an important way to support the immune response to viral infections. The aim of this review is thus to outline holistic self-defense immunity mechanisms that can help to reduce the risk of viral infections in humans. This review could therefore be used as a comprehensive resource for educating consumers and the general public about measures that can enhance the body’s immune support system as we continue to fight COVID-19 and its variants.

Keywords: Immunity, Covid-19 COVID-19, Nutrition, Bioactive compounds, Food Ingredients


Full Text: [Abstract] [Full Article]

DOI: 10.31989/bchd.v4i6.802

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