Development of al-khawada a traditional Saudi food by adding olive oil or black seed


  • Abdalbasit Adam Mariod
  • Ahmed Nami Alsulami
  • Ahmed Mohamedain



Background: The success of food products is significantly influenced by their development, aimed at achieving a new product characterized by excellent flavor, distinctive color, desirable texture, and widespread consumer acceptance. In line with these objectives, the product "al-Khawada" has been innovatively developed. This popular food item is crafted from millet flour and ghee to meet consumer preferences and expectations.

Objective: The objective of our study was to enhance al-khawada by refining its flavor, color, and texture, ultimately improving overall liking degree. Acceptance is evaluated through hedonic tests to assess the overall liking and degree of liking for individual sensory attributes. This was achieved by incorporating either olive oil or Nigella sativa into the formulation.

Methods: In this study, al-khawada was formulated with the addition of 1% and 2% olive oil, known for its richness in fat and vitamins. This variation is recognized for its ease of digestion. Additionally, black seed was incorporated at 1% and 2%, contributing seeds with high antioxidant content and numerous essential vitamins. The standard al-khawada was utilized as the control group in this comparative analysis.

Results: The results of the panalists  were analyzed using the SAS program and showed that the addition of olive oil by 1% and 2% in the manufacturing of al-khawada received the satisfaction of the panelists in terms of flavor, color, texture, and overall acceptance while the addition of black seed by 1% and 2% did not have the satisfaction of the panelists in terms of flavor, color, texture, and overall acceptance.

Conclusion:The study recommended the need to develop an al-khawada product by adding olive oil at concentration of around 1% and 2% because of its good flavor, distinctive color, desirable texture, and good overall liking. Other studies are needed to increase the ratios of acceptance of al-khawada product to give good flavor, distinctive color, and desired texture.

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Keywords: Al-khwada, Millet, Ghee, Olive oil, Black cumin seed





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