Effect of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics on gut microbiome in diabetes among coastal communities
Cutting-edge research on oceans and human health is enhancing our comprehension of disease-causing organisms in coastal ecosystems. Coastal areas are affected by pollution resulting from the changes in hydrology and land utilization. In the coastal population, an elevated incidence of diabetes was observed. Diabetes mellitus is a prominent metabolic disease that is causing major burdens for patients as well as physicians. Diabetes is an intricate condition that encompasses several molecular pathways associated with the gut microbiome. The gut microbiome significantly influences the permeability of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Alterations in the wide range of gut microbiomes have been associated with various health issues including diabetes. The two major contributors to type 2 diabetes are insulin resistance and inflammation which may result in metabolic dysregulation due to dysbiosis. Due to gut dysbiosis, diabetes may show high prevalence in individuals living in coastal areas. The correlation between dysbiosis and diabetes can be made, especially considering probiotics have been demonstrated to have some impact in helping diabetic patients with their interrupted metabolism revert to normal. Probiotic intake has reportedly resulted in improved metabolic control among patients with type 2 diabetes. Prebiotics can be non-digestible carbohydrates that are naturally extracted or synthetically produced. Uses of synbiotics show a synergistic impact on type 2 diabetes by altering the gut environment. In coastal communities, the potential effects of probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic therapy on the gut microbiome of diabetic patients have been investigated. Although these therapies have demonstrated encouraging results in coastal areas, more research is needed to fully understand their implications for controlling diabetes in this setting. In this review, we describe the role of the gut microbiome in diabetes patients residing in coastal regions and the underlying mechanisms that existed for analysing and predicting the function of the microbiome in diabetic people. The role of pre, pro, and synbiotics in type 1 and type 2 diabetes are precisely summarized.
Keywords: Type 1 diabetes, gut microbiome, type 2 diabetes, coastal region, dysbiosis, prebiotics, synbiotics, probiotics.
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