Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Contents of Ajwa Date and Their Effect on Lipo-Protein Profile
Background: Date pits although being rich in phenolic and antioxidant content are neglected part and treated as waste product. Ethanobotanical records indicates potential of ajwa dates pits and flesh having phenolics, antioxidants and some other nutrients.
Objective: The study was planned to extract the phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of ajwa date flesh and pits in comparison to local date varieties, in three different solvents with three different concentrations and to observe their effect on high lipo-protein profile of albino mice.
Materials and Methods: Three solvents viz. Methanol, Ethanol and Acetone was used at concentration of 70%, 80% and 90% to make nutraceutical extracts. These extracts were characterized for numerous nutritional parameters. Correlation of flavonoid with phenolic, DPPH, and ABTS and other parameters were studied. The above extracted ajwa flesh and pits extracts were then administrated to high cholesterol induced albino mice under three different treatments (10%, 20% and 30%) in four different groups where one group was studied as control.
Results: Pits appeared as significantly richest source for total phenols, total flavonoid contents. Such extracts from pits were high in DPPH and ABTS activity as compared to flesh in all date cultivars being highest in ajwa pits (3932.3 mg GAE/100g, 2956.2 mg QEC/100g, 96.3% and 86.2% respectively). In comparative analysis of solvents, 80% ethanol extracted highest antioxidant activity for both DPPH and ABTS assay in all date varieties and their parts. Behavior of solvent for polyphenols (Total phenols and total flavonoids) extraction was highly variable so that a single solvent cannot be recommended for extraction. Highly significant correlation of flavonoids with DPPH was observed in pits part. Phenolic contents positively correlated with flavonoids, DPPH and ABTS. DPPH and ABTS also revealed strongly positive increasing correlation. In PCA analysis phenolic contents, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity showed a closeness in case of pits while showed weak relation in flesh parts. Furthermore, results also depicted that 30% extracts of ajwa pits have higher effect on percent reduction of total protein, total triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels while also significantly increased the percent HDL-C levels in treated albino mice
Conclusion: The work identifies variability among flesh and pits of ajwa date and local date varieties for their polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity and their health beneficial effect against high Lipo-protein profile that can be used as an active ingredient against different maladies in food products and supplements.
Key words: Ajwa, Phenolics, antioxidants, PCA
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