Fatty acid profile, phenolic compounds and potential antioxidant activity of fresh and cooked Massaman curry paste
Background: Fresh herbs and spices used in Thai food are one of the aspects that make Thai cuisine so unique. While some of these herbs and spices have been studied scientifically to look for health benefits, there is little definitive evidence on the subject.
Objective: To determine the proximate compositions, fatty acid profiles, phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity of fresh massaman curry paste (MCP) and cooked massaman curry, including beef and chicken massaman curry (BMC and CMC, respectively).
Methods: The chemical composition and fatty acid profile of freeze-dried samples were analyzed. Food samples were extracted by three solvents: water, absolute methanol or ethanol. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC, TFC, respectively) of the extracts were measured spectrophotometrically and identified through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidant activities of extracts were evaluated by 2,2-dyphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays.
Results: It was found that carbohydrate, protein and fat were the main components of all sample studies. Chicken massaman curry (CMC) contained the highest fat and energy contents. The fatty acid profile of CMC showed high values of lauric acid (9460 mg/100 g), oleic acid (6050 mg/100 g) and palmitic acid (4220 mg/100 g). In contrast, MCP had high masses of linoleic acid (213.70 mg/100 g) and palmitic acid (195.71 mg/100g). It was determined that the methanol extract of MCP had the highest content of TPC (1.076±0.013 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100g crude extract), TFC (27.10±0.31 mg CE/ 100g crude extract) and antioxidant activity after being analyzed through FRAP assay (0.311 ± 0.002 mg Trolox/100g crude extract). The ethanol extract of MCP contained the highest mass of DPPH at a value of 11.81±0.06 mg GAE/100 g crude extract, followed by the methanol extract of MCP (11.02 ± 0.05 mg GAE/100 g crude extract). Cooked massaman curry, including BMC and CMC, had lower contents of TPC, TFC and antioxidant than fresh MCP did. Ferulic acid, the main phenolic acid in the samples, was highest in the methanol extract, followed by ethanol and then water. After the cooking process, some activities of food were altered.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that fresh massamun curry paste and cooked Massuman curry in ready-to-eat foods could potentially exhibit antioxidant activity. The health benefits from of plant sources still remained in the products after being cooked.Keywords: Thai food, Massaman curry, Antioxidant activity, Fatty acid profile, Phenolic compounds
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