The nexus of gut microbiota, diet, and health
The gut microbiome incorporates the ecological niche specific to the totality of the microorganisms in the human gut. Unique to every individual, the blueprint of the microbiome sets up at birth and functions as a human organ and plays a significant role in digestion, detoxification, fighting pathogens, modulating the immune system, and improving health. The gut microbiota and associated health implications are influenced by factors such as birth and age, diseases, use of antibiotics and food components (e.g., complex carbohydrates and dietary fibers, plant proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, and functional compounds of natural origin such as flavones, flavonoids, polyphenols, and antioxidants). Toward this end, diet and the gut microbiome interact and govern each other’s fate. Herein, gut dysbiosis, the alteration of natural state and composition of the gut microbiome, and the gut microflora diversity modulated by food constituents and associated health effects have been discussed. The gut microbiota composition and related metabolites are influenced by the diet which in turn modulates human health. The outcome is deemed to aid in developing personalized diet recommendations (based on the unique gut microbiome) toward improving human health.
Keywords: gut microbiome, gut microbiota, gut dysbiosis, short-chain fatty acids, metabolites, health modulation
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